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See Authorization Approval Code.


See American Bankers Association.

ABA Routing Number

A unique, nine-digit number assigned to each banking institution, used to identify the bank and direct ACH debits and credits. The ABA routing number is usually found at the bottom of a personal or business check.

Account Updater

A service offered by best-in-class payment processors that provides updated customer account information from the card networks.

Accounts Receivable Conversion (ARC)

An electronic debit created from a consumer check processed in a lockbox, drop box or other payment receivable processing environment.


See Automated Clearing House.


See Average Customer Lifetime Value.

Acquirer, Acquiring Bank

A financial institution that is a member of Visa® and/or MasterCard® and maintains the merchant credit card processing relationship. The acquirer receives all transactions from the merchant to be distributed to the issuing banks. See also Issuer, Issuing Bank.

Activation Fee

A one-time fee paid for initiation of a subscription billing service. Also known as setup fee.

Address Verification Service (AVS)

A service supported by Visa, MasterCard, Discover and American Express® that verifies the cardholder's billing address against the one on file with the issuer. AVS is designed to help combat fraud in non-face-to-face transactions.


A change made to a contract or subscription, such as a change in product or edition (e.g. upgrade or downgrade), number of users, payment terms, or a contract renewal.

American Bankers Association (ABA)

Largest banking trade association in the United States.


See Application Programming Interface.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A set of programming protocols used to integrate payment processors with merchant websites for online payment processing.

Application Service Provider (ASP)

An organization that hosts software applications on its own servers within its own facilities. Customers access the application via private lines or the Internet. Also called a commercial service provider (CSP).

Approval Response

An affirmative reply following a transaction authorization request.


A procedure used by an acquirer on behalf of the merchant to resolve a chargeback-related dispute with a card issuer.


See Accounts Receivable Conversion. 


See Application Service Provider.


MasterCard International, Visa U.S.A. or Visa International, which are licensing regulatory agencies for bank card activities.


The process by which a transaction is approved by the issuer, or by Visa/MasterCard on behalf of the issuer. Permission is given to (or denied) the merchant, via the acquirer, to accept a specific transaction from the cardholder account. An authorization indicates only that the card is valid and that sufficient funds are available on the cardholder's credit limit at the time the request is made.

Authorization Approval Code (AAC)

The numerical code designated by the issuer, assigned to a sales transaction as verification that the sale is authorized.

Authorization Only, Auth Only

Used to reserve an amount against a credit card's available credit limit for intended purchases. Authorization Only is most frequently used in the lodging (check-in), restaurant (tab) and car rental (pick-up) industries, where an approval is received for an estimated amount prior to the finalization of the charge amount.

Authorization Request

A merchant's request for an authorization to accept a cardholder's sales transaction. An authorization request can occur electronically via a credit card processing terminal or via telephone as a voice authorization.


Synonymous with “Subscription.” The AutoBill object defines the relationship between an Account (the customer), the product(s) or service(s) purchased, and a BillingPlan (the frequency and amount of the invoice). Once created for a specific customer, an AutoBill object automatically generates periodic Transaction objects within Vindicia Subscribe, according to the terms defined on the Billing Plan.

Automated Clearing House (ACH)

Group of processing institutions linked by a computer network to process electronic payment transactions between financial institutions.

Auto Representment

Automatically sending information to resolve a chargeback on a merchant's behalf without the need for merchant intervention.


A certified service provider for sales tax management. See AvaTax.


Sales tax software from Avalara that calculates sales tax in the jurisdictions in which companies have tax obligations.

Average Customer Lifetime Value (ACLV)

Total recurring charges fees for subscription billing, ACLV is an important measurement for subscription or SaaS subscription billing.

Average Ticket

The average dollar amount of sale for credit card transactions.


See Address Verification Service.


See Business to Business.

Back-End Network

The settlement provider responsible for finalizing transactions, routing payment to a merchant's account and generating statements.

Balance Sheet

A financial statement that lists assets, liabilities and net worth as of a specific date.

Bank Card

A card issued by a banking institution with a MasterCard, Visa or American Express brand.

Bank Identification Number (BIN)

A unique series of numbers assigned by Visa/MasterCard to a member institution, which identifies that institution in transaction processing. The BIN comprises the first six digits of a standard credit card number.


A group of approved credit card transactions, usually accumulated during one business day.

Batch Deposit

The electronic depositing of a batch file transmitted to the transaction processor for settlement.

Batch Processing

The authorization of transactions offline when immediate approval is not required. Transactions are collected in a batch and sent as one transmission for authorization and/or settlement.

Bill Run

Automated subscription billing based on pre-defined conditions, such as the date, specific customer data, amount of payment etc.

Billing in Advance

Charges for services provided at a later date.

Billing in Arrears

Charges for services delivered in the past or in a previous billing period.


See Bank Identification Number.

Bisynchronous Communication

A communication method that transmits continuously with no start and stop between the information bytes.


In a subscription or SaaS company, calculated as the sum or all charges on an order, including recurring charges, one-time fees, and service fees in a given contract period. Bookings is an operational metric used to track the performance of a subscription business. Also see SaaS.


A software application used to locate and display Web pages.

Business to Business (B2B, B-To-B)

Refers to one business communicating with or selling to another.


In Vindicia Subscribe, Campaigns allow you to offer discounts or other special pricing as coupons or promotions. See Coupon/Promo Code.


Receiving and storing transaction data at the processor's host computer, to be submitted later for processing and payment.

Card Identification Number, Card Identifier (CID)

An American Express and Discover verification process that utilizes a non-embossed three- or four-digit number printed when authorizing credit card transactions where the physical card is not present. On American Express cards, the CID is a four-digit code printed on the front of the card. On Discover cards, the CID is a three-digit code printed next to the card number in the signature panel.

Card-Not-Present (CNP)

A type of card transaction in which the card is not present at the point of sale for the magnetic stripe to be read.


A type of transaction in which the card is present and is swiped through an electronic device that reads the contents of the magnetic stripe on the back of the card.

Card Reader

Input device on a card terminal that translates the information stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of a card.

Card Validation Code (CVC2)

MasterCard term for the three-digit code printed next to the card number in the signature panel and used as part of the authorization process.

Card Verification Number (CVN)

A three-digit security number that usually appears on the back of a credit or debit card. 

Card Verification Value (CVV2)

Visa term for the three-digit code printed next to the card number in the signature panel and used as part of the authorization process.


The person to whom a payment card is issued, or an additional person authorized by the original cardholder to use the card.

Cardholder Account Number

A sequence of numbers assigned specifically to a cardholder account that also identifies the issuer and type of payment card. The cardholder account number is the embossed number imprinted on the payment card.

Cardholder-Initiated Chargeback

A chargeback that results when a cardholder contacts the card issuer and refuses to accept a charge appearing on a monthly billing statement. A cardholder has 90 days to initiate a chargeback. Also see Chargeback.

Cash Advance

A transaction in which a cardholder obtains cash in person at the branch of a member financial institution or ATM. This is the only method of receiving cash from a credit card that is approved by the payment brands.


ACH Standard Entry Code (SEC) for a Corporate Credit or Debit entry, initiated by a merchant, to consolidate funds of that organization from its branches, franchises or agents, or from other organizations; or to fund the accounts of its branches, franchises or agents or of another organization.


A challenge to a transaction initiated by the issuer or cardholder that is returned to the acquirer for resolution. See also Acquirer, Acquiring Bank and Issuer, Issuing Bank.

Chargeback Fee

The amount assessed by the acquirer for processing chargebacks.

Chargeback Reason Code

A numerical code that identifies the specific reason for a chargeback. MasterCard and Visa each have their own chargeback codes.

Chargeback Representment

The process by which a merchant can dispute a chargeback with an issuing bank. See also Auto Representment.

Check Card

A bank card that can be used with a PIN at an ATM, or without a PIN at the point of sale (also known as an offline debit card). When used at the point of sale, the transaction is processed through interchange as a credit card transaction with the funds debited from the cardholder's checking account.

Check Digit Verification

A check digit is the last position of a card account number, generated from an algorithm performed on a primary card account number. Verification of this number is referred to as a Mod-10 check and is used to validate a credit card number. See also Luhn Algorithm, Luhn Check.


A measure of customer attrition, calculated as the number of customers who discontinue service during a specified time period, divided by the total number of customers at the start of that period. Churn is an operational metric used to gauge the overall health of a subscription business. Churn is measured in units or dollars.


See Card Identification Number/Card Identifier.


The encrypted text of a message, which may be decrypted only by someone who has the correct key.


Sending a merchant's completed transactions to the host for processing. See also Settlement.

Close Rate

Sales terminology for the percent of sales prospects which result in actual paying business.

Cloud Computing

The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than using a local server or a personal computer. See also Saas.


See Card Not Present.

Commercial Service Provider (CSP)

See Application Service Provider.

Contract Effective Date

Represents the date from which the contract terms take effect. The date also can determine when certain charges can be billed to the customer, and often coincides with the start of the subscription term.

Conversion Rate

Calculated as the percentage of users whose status changes, e.g from an Internet search to a click on a link or paid ad; from a website visitor to a known lead (through completion of a web form or inbound contact); from a free trial or free product user to a paid susbcriber, etc. Subscription businesses depend upon known conversion rates to monitor the health of their business and to predict future pipeline and revenue.

Counterfeit Card

A plastic card that has been fraudulently printed, embossed or encoded to appear to be a genuine bank card, but which has not been issued by an appropriate issuing member. It could also be a card which was originally issued by a member, but was subsequently altered without the issuer's knowledge or consent.

Coupon/Promo Code

Coupon or promo codes are used by subscription businesses to provide prospects with specialized pricing as an incentive to sign up. They are also used to track the effectiveness of various marketing campaigns. In Vindicia Subscribe, Campaigns are used to create coupons and promos.


A refund or price adjustment given for a previous purchase.

Credit Card

A plastic card with a credit limit used to purchase goods and services and to obtain cash advances on credit. The cardholder is then billed by the issuer for repayment of the credit extended. See also Issuer, Issuing Bank.

Credit Slip

A form stating that a refund or price adjustment will be credited to a cardholder account. Also referred to as a credit voucher or credit draft.


The process of protecting information by transforming it into an unreadable format. The information is encrypted using a "key" that makes the data unreadable. It is later decrypted, making the information readable again.


See Application Service Provider.

Customer Acceptance Date

Date from which the customer has accepted the delivery of the subscription or change order associated with the subscription billing.


See Card Validation Code.


See Card Verification Number 


See Card Verification Value.


A graphical representation of key business metrics such as MRR (monthly recurring revenue), ACLV (Average Customer Lifetime Value), TCLV (Total Customer Lifetime Value), churn, conversion, close rates, and so on. A subscription business dashboard provides a snapshot of the health of the subscription business.

Data Encryption

The scrambling of data so only the intended users can read and understand the encrypted information.


See Doing Business As.


See Demand Deposit Account.

Debit Card

A bank card used to purchase goods and services and to obtain cash, which debits the cardholder's personal checking account. During online debit transactions, the cardholder must enter a PIN.

Debit Network

See Debit Switch.

Debit Switch

A portal that transmits debit data between gateway banks and debit card issuers. Also referred to as Debit Network. Only financial institutions may be members of debit switches.


A response from the card issuer denying the use of the card for the attempted transaction. If a request for approval is declined, the merchant must ask the cardholder for another form of payment.

Demand Deposit Account (DDA)

A checking account.

Digital Certificate

An encrypted attachment to an electronic message, used for security purposes. The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be. The receiver is also provided with a way to encode a reply.

Direct Response

Term used to describe a merchant processing primarily non-face-to-face or card-not-present transactions.

Discount Rate

The fees charged by the card acquirer to the merchant for processing payment card transactions.

Doing Business As (DBA)

The name a business uses to operate.


Change order or amendment to an existing contract whereby the customer chooses a lower service level and is billed a lesser amount for the service.


The membership of a financial institution in both MasterCard and Visa associations.

Due Upon Receipt

Payment term in which payment is due immediately upon receipt of invoice.

Dunning Notice

Notice sent to customer of payment overdue.


See Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment 


See Electronic Benefits Transfer.

E-Check, Electronic Check

Form of digital payment that serves the same function as a physical check. When a merchant accepts an electronic check payment, the merchant receives the specified funds directly from a customer’s checking account.


Electronic Commerce: the sale and purchase of goods or services over the Internet.


See Electronic Check Acceptance/ Electronic Check Processing.


See Electronic Check Acceptance/ Electronic Check Processing.


See Electronic Cash Register.


See Electronic Data Interchange .


See Electronic Funds Transfer.


See Enterprise Invoice Presentment and Payment. 

Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT)

The automation of government benefits through electronic authorization, data capture and settlement processes. Plastic cards with magnetic stripes are used, eliminating paper benefits and coupon distribution.

Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBBT)

Process that enables bills to be created, delivered, and paid over the Internet.  

Electronic Cash Register (ECR)

A cash register that also emulates a point-of-sale terminal for processing credit card transactions.

Electronic Check Acceptance, Electronic Check Processing (ECA/ECP)

Process that converts a paper check into an electronic check at the point of sale. The check is electronically processed through the ACH network. Se also ACH.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

Computer-to-computer exchange of business documents in a standard electronic format between business partners.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)

An electronic system that automatically moves funds, e.g., an ATM withdrawal or pay-by-phone transaction.

Electronic Payment

Any non-paper-based form of payment, such as ACH, wire transfer, credit or debit card, PayPal, and so on. See also ACH.


Method of scrambling data to protect a cardholder's personal information.

Enterprise Invoice Presentment and Payment (EIPP)

Process by which companies submit invoices and accept payment over the internet. 


For customer: the right to access, receive, use or otherwise benefit from a contractually agreed provision. In this context, an entitlement could also be construed as the use of a product or service. For merchant: license or permission to accept a particular type of payment card or other payment vehicle.

Exceeded Timeliness

A transaction that is deposited too late to qualify for the best interchange rate.

Expiration Date

The embossed date on a payment card. After that date, the card becomes invalid and should no longer be accepted.


When a legitimate merchant processes another merchant's transactions in return for payment. This practice is forbidden by the associations (licensing regulatory agencies for bank card activities.)


See Free to Play.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

A protocol used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network (Internet, UNIX, etc). See also Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

Financial Institution

Any organization in the business of moving, investing or lending money, dealing in financial instruments or providing financial services. This includes commercial banks, thrifts, federal and state savings banks, saving and loan associations and credit unions.

Fleet Card

Payment card designed mainly for fueling, maintenance and repairs of corporate motor vehicles. Fleet cards are normally used to provide specialized reporting.


A number assigned by a lodging merchant for tracking a guest's charges.


The process by which a voice-authorized transaction is key-entered to be settled electronically with a batch of transactions. Also known as a post-auth.

Frame Relay

A TCP/IP link for data that has high transmission speeds, low network delay, high connectivity and efficient bandwidth use. See also Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). 

Fraud Investigation

The process of identifying suspicious merchant or cardholder activity.

Free to Play (F2P)

A gaming-industry term that describes the type of experience in which users can join and play for free with an option to purchase virtual goods or virtual currencies that enhance game play or social perception.


A free service with the option for certain or all customers to upgrade to a paid, premium version with additional capabilities or convenience.

Front-End Network

Network provider responsible for authorizing and capturing transactions and forwarding the information to the back-end network.


See File Transfer Protocol.


Manages the electronic connection between consumers and financial institutions and transmits data.

Gift Card

A reusable, stored-value card that enables merchants to have an electronic alternative to paper gift certificates.

Good Faith

An attempt by a card association member to resolve a dispute with another member in writing. A good-faith attempt at resolution must be made before filing a compliance case.

Grace Period

A time past the deadline for an obligation during which a late penalty that would have been imposed is waived.

Hard Decline, Hard Fail

A condition which results in a Transaction being declined for reasons that are of a permanent nature, such as the card being revoked due to fraud alerts. See also Soft Decline, Soft Fail.


See Host Capture System.


See Hosted Order Automation.


A laser-created photograph that uses a three-dimensional image that is difficult to duplicate. Used as an anti-counterfeiting measure on many payment cards.

Host Capture System (HCS)

A system in which transaction is transmitted with an authorization request to the host computer at the front end. The information is captured at the host, then sent back to the POS device. Since the information is already stored at the host, it can be settled without the merchant performing a settlement function.

Hosted Order Automation (HOA)

The Vindicia host capture system. Allows merchants to accept and process customer payment method information by submitting it directly from the merchant’s order form to Vindicia over Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) without the credit card information going through a merchant’s own servers, thereby alleviating the need for compliance with PCI requirements. See Host Capture System.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

A telecommunications network through which sound, images, and data can be transmitted as digitized signals.


National debit card network in Canada.


The exchange of transaction data between acquiring and issuing institutions.

Interchange Fees

Fees paid by the acquirer to the issuer to compensate for transaction-related costs. MasterCard, Visa, American Express, etc. establish interchange fee rates.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

An organization that provides access to the Internet.


Part of the quote-to-cash process that refers to the collection of payments from the customer, based on an invoice. The process includes invoice creation, collection management and dispute management, if any.


See Integrated Services Digital Network.


See Internet Service Provider.

Issuer, Issuing Bank

The financial institution that holds contractual agreements with, and issues cards to, cardholders. See also Acquirer, Acquiring Bank.

Leased Line

A dedicated telecom connection with either point-to-point or multi-point configuration.

Level I Data

Level I purchasing card data includes the same information captured during a traditional credit card purchase transaction. This includes: total purchase amount, date, merchant category code and supplier/retailer name.

Level II Data

Level II purchasing card data includes the same information captured at Level I, plus the following: sales tax amount, customer's accounting code, merchant's tax ID number, applicable minority-owned and women-owned business status, and sales outlet ZIP code.

Level III Data

Level III purchasing card data includes the same information captured at Levels I and II, plus the following: quantities, product codes, product descriptions, ship to ZIP, freight amount, duty amount, order/ticket number, unit of measure, extended item amount, discount indicator, discount amount, net/gross indicator, tax rate applied, tax type applied, debit or credit indicator, and alternate tax identifier.

Line of Credit (LOC)

The amount of credit a lender will extend to a borrower over a specified period of time.


See Line of Credit.


A service that processes payments by check and credits the appropriate business.

Luhn Algorithm, Luhn Check

Formula used to validate identity numbers, such as credit card numbers. Also known as Mod-10.


Mobile commerce, the use of wireless handheld devices such as cellular phones and laptops to conduct commercial transactions online.

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Number (MICR Number)

The bank routing and transit number, checking account number, and check number encoded at the bottom of a check that can be used to authorize the check.

Magnetic Stripe

A panel located on the back of a payment card containing magnetically encoded cardholder account information.

MasterCard International Incorporated

A member-owned international bank card association, governed by a board of directors, which licenses members to issue cards or accept merchant drafts under the MasterCard Program. MasterCard owns and operates its own international processing network.


Management Assistance Team.


See Merchant Category Code.


The documentation of monetary transactions (such as sales drafts, credit slips, computer printouts, etc.).

Media Retrieval Requests

Media retrieval is the process of obtaining paper documents from a centralized location. There are two types of media retrieval requests: 1) requests for the sales record from cardholders, and 2) requests for documentation in defense of the chargeback from card issuers.


A financial institution that is a member of Visa and/or MasterCard. A member is licensed to issue cards to cardholders (issuer) and/or accepts merchant drafts (acquirer).


Store owner or seller of products.

Merchant Agreement

The written contract between the merchant and acquirer that details their respective rights, responsibilities and warranties.

Merchant Bank

See Acquirer, Acquiring Bank.

Merchant Category Code (MCC)

A universal four-digit merchant classification code assigned to a merchant by a credit card company that identifies the merchant by type of processing, authorization, and settlement. See also Standard Industrial Classification.

Merchant Discount

The fee an acquiring member charges the merchant to cover the costs of providing deposit credit and handling credit card sales transactions. See Discount Rate.

Merchant Identification Number (MID)

The identification number assigned to a merchant by the acquiring bank. See also Acquirer, Acquiring Bank.

Method Of Payment (MOP)

The way a merchant chooses to accept payment for products or services. Examples include: MasterCard, Visa, American Express, Discover, Carte Blanche, Diners Club, JCB, Electronic Check, and private label cards.

MICR Number

See Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Number.


A payment for a small amount of money, also called a micropayment, generally for less than 12 USD. Microtransactions are frequently aggregated together over a period of time or until a certain amount has been reached.


See Merchant Identification Number.

Mobile commerce

See M-Commerce.

Mod-10 Check

See Check Digit Verification and Luhn Algorithm, Luhn Check.

Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR)

Calculates subscription fees normalized to a monthly value. Does not include set up, activation, or overage costs. MRR is a key metric for subscription businesses.


See Method Of Payment.


See Monthly Recurring Revenue.


See National Automated Clearinghouse Association

National Automated Clearinghouse Association (NACHA)

Develops operating rules and business practices for the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network and for electronic payments in the areas of Internet commerce, electronic bill and invoice presentment and payment (EBPP, EIPP), e-checks, financial electronic data interchange (EDI), international payments, and electronic benefits transfer (EBT).

Name Value Pair (NVP)

A Merchant definable field in Vindicia Subscribe


An entire system of communication hardware and software used to transfer electronic information during the authorization and settlement process.


A charge to a cardholder account by a lodging merchant if the person either fails to arrive or fails to cancel the guaranteed reservation.

Non-Face-to-Face Transaction

Any transaction in which the card is not presented, such as a phone, mail or Internet purchase. See Card-Not-Present.


See Name Value Pair


See Order-to-Cash.

Offer Walls

Offer walls are advertising offers that users can take advantage of to trade marketing information in return for application currency.

Offline Debit

Debit transaction that occurs when a Visa/MasterCard check card is authorized through the credit card system and the amount is debited from the cardholder's checking (DDA) account.

Offline Transaction

A transaction that is authorized through a voice authorization and later keyed into a POS terminal prior to settlement.

OK Number

A validation number from the host computer confirming a successful batch deposit.

Online Transaction

A transaction that is authorized electronically from the front-end network.

Order-to-Cash (O2C, OTC)

Order-to-cash refers to the process in which a customer places an order, either via a website or through a sales rep, the merchant provides the service and generates a bill or invoice, and finally collects payment for that bill/invoice. Order-to-cash is a recurring, ongoing process in a subscription business.


See Over-The-Top.

Over-The-Top (OTT)

Delivery of audio, video, and other media over the Internet without the involvement of a multiple-system operator in the control or distribution of the content.


Usage charges incurred when service level included in the rate plan is exceeded.


See Platform-as-a-Service.

Payment Card Industry (PCI)

All the organizations which store, process and transmit cardholder data, most notably for debit cards and credit cards.

Payment Processor

A company appointed by a merchant to handle transactions from various channels such as credit cards and debit cards for merchant acquiring banks.


An online device that bars Internet users from accessing web site content (most notably news content and scholarly publications) without a paid subscription. There are both “hard” and “soft” paywalls in use. “Hard” paywalls allow minimal to no access to content without a subscription, while “soft” paywalls allow more flexibility in what users can view without subscribing.


See Payment Card Industry.

PCI Compliance

Adherence to the set of security standards set by the Payment Card Industry (PCI) that protect card information during and after a financial transaction.


The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a set of requirements designed to ensure that all companies that process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment.

Personal Identification Number (PIN)

A numeric code used as verification to complete a transaction via a payment card. The number is entered into a keypad and is encrypted to travel along with the authorization.

Pick Up Card

An issuer's electronic response to an authorization request, asking that the card be retained by the merchant and returned to the issuer.


See Personal Identification Number.

Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)

A comprehensive set of services that are delivered over the web, including all systems and environments comprising the end-to-end life cycle of developing, testing, deploying and hosting web applications. Examples include, Google App Engine, and Amazon EC2.

Point-of-Sale (POS)

The location at which a payment card transaction occurs, usually by way of a device such as a credit card terminal or cash register.

Point-of-Sale Terminal (POS Terminal)

A terminal at the point of sale, connected via telecommunication lines to a central computer. Authorization, recording and transmission of electronic transactions are performed through the terminal.


See Point-of-Sale.

POS Terminal

See Point-of-Sale Terminal.


See Force.


The process of recording debits and credits to an account.


See Prearranged Payment Or Deposit Entry.

Prearranged Payment Or Deposit Entry (PPD)

A credit or debit entry, initiated by a merchant, pursuant to a standing, or one time authorization from a consumer, to effect an electronic funds transfer, to or from a consumer's bank account.


In the electronic check-processing environment, a non-dollar transaction sent through the ACH network for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of the cardholder's account data.

Presentment Currency

The currency in which a purchase is authorized through Visa, MasterCard or American Express.

Private Label Card

A card issued by a merchant that can only be used in the issuing merchant's business; for example, a department store credit card.

Processing Fees

The fees associated with the processing of credit card transactions.


A company responsible for processing interchange transactions, operated by an acquirer or acting on the acquirer's behalf.


A set of rules that allow data communications to work.


See Quote-to-Cash.

Quote-to-Cash (Q2C/QTC)

Term that refers to the end-to-end business process for creating a quote for a prospect or customer, order management, invoicing and cash receipt. See also Invoice-to-Collect.


Also called Re-Auth or Add Auth. To request an additional amount to be authorized on an existing transaction. Used in the lodging industry when the original authorization is not sufficient to cover the charges.

Real Money Trade (RMT)

A mechanism by which users can convert virtual currencies to physical currency (real money). Before engaging in RMTs that involve currency conversions, be sure to consider and address the legal and fraud issues that might apply.

Reason Code

A two-digit code identifying the reason a chargeback was initiated.

Recurring Transaction

A transaction charged to a cardholder's account (with prior permission) on a periodic basis for recurring goods and services, i.e., health club memberships.


A refund occurs when the merchant rebates all, or a portion, of an original transaction amount to the cardholder. Refunds are made to the same card that was used for the original transaction. See also Credit.

Renewal Rate

Calculated as the percentage of subscribers scheduled to expire during any one cycle who renew their subscriptions. Renewal rate is a subscription operational metric which reflects overall customer satisfaction. Can be measured on a unit or dollar value basis.


An attempt to reverse a chargeback initiated by a merchant or acquirer to the issuing bank that presented the chargeback, backed by supporting documentation.

Retail Transaction

A face-to-face transaction in which the cardholder presents a card to the merchant to pay for goods or services.

Retrieval Request

A request by the issuer to the acquirer for a copy of the original sales ticket.

Revenue Recognition

The Revenue recognition principle is a cornerstone of accrual accounting, together with matching principle. They both determine the accounting period, in which revenues and expenses are recognized. According to the principle, revenues are recognized when they are (1) realized or realizable, and (2) earned (usually when goods are transferred or services rendered), no matter when cash is received. By contrast, in cash accounting, revenues are recognized when cash is received regardless of when goods or services are sold.


When an acquirer successfully represents a chargeback to the issuer, the chargeback is reversed and the funds are returned to the merchant.


See Real Money Trade.


See Software-as-a-Service.

Sales Transaction Fee

The amount the financial institution charges a merchant for each sales transaction.


A separate technical environment where customers or prospects can test software or services with a subset of data without disruption to their production environment.

SAS 70

Statement on Auditing Standards No. 70, an international regulatory standard developed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants that requires formal reviews on an organization’s control over information technology and related processes.


See Software Development Kit.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the web server and browsers remain private and integral.

Setup Fee

One-time charge levied to cover costs associated with getting a customer up and running on a service. Also known as activation fee. 


The process in which a merchant transmits batches of transactions to the acquirer. In interchange, it is the process by which acquirers and issuers exchange financial data resulting from sales transactions, cash advances, merchandise credits, etc.

Settlement Currency

The currency in which a merchant receives funds after the completion of a foreign exchange conversion.

Shopping Cart

A software application that typically runs on the computer where the merchant website is located (the Web server), and allows customers to do things such as search for a product in the store catalog, add a selected product to a basket, and place an order for it. For many subscription businesses, when the customer adds an item to the shopping cart, this typically referred to as the “Subscribe Now” or “Order Now” process, where customer profile and payment information is collected to provision the service and commence billing.


See Standard Industrial Classification.


When a user switches to a different but comparable product or service offering. See also Upgrade.

Single Sign-On (SSO)

A session/user authentication process that permits a user to enter one name and password in order to access multiple applications.

Smart Card

A payment card with a built-in microprocessor (chip) that stores information. Smart cards can be used for stored-value cards, credit cards, loyalty programs, and security access.

Soft Decline, Soft Fail

A condition which results in a Transaction being declined for reasons that are of a temporary nature, such as insufficient funds, card expired, credit limit exceeded, an so on. With a soft fail, a card may still be valid. These transactions may be resubmitted a day or two later in an attempt to obtain a valid authorization. See also Hard Decline, Hard Fail.

Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

A software delivery model in which a software is provided on a usage, duration, or frequency basis rather than as a one-time license.

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A set of software development tools to help a developer incorporate software into another program or system.


Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements No. 16, the attestation standard used for reporting on controls at service organizations. This standard is part of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants' Service Organization Control (SOC) reporting framework.


See Secure Sockets Layer.


See Single Sign-On.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

A system for classifying industries by a four-digit code, used by government agencies to classify industry areas. See also Merchant Category Code.

Stored Value Card (SVC)

A stored value card is used by a merchant to issue spending credit to their customers. The merchant's customers are given a magnetic stripe card in exchange for money received, merchandise returned or other considerations. The card represents a dollar value that the merchant's customer can either use or give to another individual. There is no security associated with the card itself. The actual record of the balance on the card is maintained on a stored value card database.


A file sent by the merchant that contains one or more transactions.

Summary Adjustment

A correction to a deposit, made by the acquirer, when there is an error in the submitted deposit.


See Stored Value Card.


Communication method that transmits continuously with no stop or start bytes between information bytes.

T&E Cards

Travel and Entertainment payment cards, developed for and used primarily in travel-related services.

T&E Merchant

Travel and Entertainment Merchant, an airline, car rental company, or lodging establishment with a primary function of providing travel-related services.


See Total Customer Lifetime Value.


See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.


Selling goods or services over the phone, for payment by credit card.

Terminal Identification Number (TID)

Number identifying a merchant to the front-end network.


See Terminal Identification Number. 

Tiered pricing

A common subscription and usage charge model where pricing changes are based on the incremental number of units that are purchased. For instance, 1-5 units may be charged at full price and 6-10 units may be charged at a discounted price. If a customer purchases 7 units, the first 5 units are charged at full price and the 6th and 7th units are discounted.

Total Customer Lifetime Value (TCLV)

Calculates the total recurring charges over the lifetime of a subscription. TCLV is a key performance metric for SaaS or subscription-based businesses. For instance, a three year contract billed annually at $15,000 per year would have a total contract value of $45,000, assuming there are no activation or set up fees.

Track One

Track One information, stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of a payment card, stores the cardholder's name in addition to the account number and expiration date.

Track Two

Track Two information, stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of a payment card, has the account number and expiration date.


Any action between a cardholder and a merchant or member that results in activity on the account, such as a purchase, cash advance or credit.

Transaction Date

The actual date on which a transaction occurs.

Transaction Fee

The amount a merchant pays per transaction for processing.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

The basic communication language or protocol of the Internet.


A change order or amendment to an existing contract subscription where a customer chooses a higher service level. This can be a more expensive service offering or a larger quantity. See also Sidegrade.

Usage Charge

Charge associated with actual consumption of a given product or service. This can be measured in terms of time on a site, gigabytes of data, number of reports generated, miles driven, or any other unit of measure.

Usage Pricing

Pricing a service or item based on its consumption or usage, rather than a flat rate for a given service or period of time.

Valid Date

The date embossed on a payment card stating when the card may first be used.

Value Added Reseller (VAR)

A company that resells software, hardware and/or networking products and provides value beyond order fulfillment.


See Value Added Reseller.

Virtual Currency

A type of money in place of physical currency (real money). For example, users can earn virtual currency by signing up for a service, playing a game, or trading real money. In some cases, they can convert virtual currency back to physical currency through a real money trade (RMT).

Virtual Goods

Non-physical objects purchased for use in online communities or online games that generally exist as a database entry only. The value can be functional, social, or emotional.

Visa USA

A member-owned national bank card association, governed by a board of directors, which licenses members to issue cards and accept merchant drafts under the Visa Program. Visa owns and operates its own international processing network.

Volume Pricing

Subscription billing based on a usage charge model where pricing changes based on the total number of units that are purchased.


ACH Standard Entry Code (SEC) for a Web-Initiated Entry, an electronic debit from a consumer's bank account created during a secure Internet session between a company and a consumer.

Web Store

A website where customers can browse, select, and purchase products or services.

Zero Floor Limit

A retail authorization system in which all of a customer's credit or debit transactions must be checked against the card's outstanding balance due before processing. Floor limit refers to the limit above which credit or debit transactions require authorization. When that limit is zero, all transactions require authorization, regardless of size

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